realDB: A Genome Database for Red Algae

Galdieria sulphuraria

Overview
1. extremophilic unicellular species of red algae. It is the type species of the genus Galdieria.
2. It is known for its broad metabolic capacities, including photosynthesis and heterotrophic growth on over 50 different extracellular carbon sources.
3. The members of the class Cyanidiophyceae are among the most acidophilic known photosynthetic organisms, and the growth conditions of G. sulphuraria – pH between 0 and 4, and temperatures up to 56 °C – are among the most extreme known for eukaryotes.
4. Analysis of its genome suggests that its thermoacidophilic adaptations derive from horizontal gene transfer from archaea and bacteria, another rarity among eukaryotes.
5. G. sulphuraria is noted for its extreme metabolic flexibility: it is capable of photosynthesis and can also grow heterotrophically on a wide variety of carbon sources, including diverse carbohydrates.
6. G. sulphuraria is unusual for a eukaryote in being thermoacidophilic.


Data Source
From Jain K, at Center for Plant Science Innovation, University of Nebraska - Lincoln School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska - Lincoln.


Reference Publication(s)
Jain K, et al. Extreme features of the Galdieria sulphuraria organellar genomes: a consequence of polyextremophily? Genome Biol Evol. 2014; 7 (1): 367-80.


Statistics of genome

Genome size (Mb)

37.7

GC (%) coding sequence (excluding introns)

38.6

CpG occurrence (Obs./Exp.)

0.715

CpG islands

27

Repeat content

713

Number of rRNA units (18S/5.8S/28S + 5S)

4+10

Number of tRNAs

85

Predicted proteins

6623

Gene density (kb per gene)

2.07

Average gene length (bp)

1601

Average transcript length (bp)

1388

Average number of amino acids per polypeptide

421

Average number of exons per gene

3.16

Average exon length (bp)

417.3

Introns

13630

Genes with introns (%)

72.4

Average intron length (bp)

56.5

Median intergenic distance (bp)

20

Coding sequence (%)

77.5

Total sequence length

12,093,695

Total assembly gap length

0

Number of contigs

117

Contig N50

134,001

Contig L50

35

Total number of chromosomes and plasmids

0